So what is the difference between these sentences?
- I love to listen to people singing christman carols - participle I love to listen to people who sing christmas carols - relative pronoun
- I saw a little boy being bitten by the dog - participle I saw a little boy who was bitten by the dog - relative pronoun
In the participle case, the 2 functions are happening at the same time
In the relative pronoun case, the reader does not know when the action (stated after who) occurs