How should we tackle sentences with the following structure: “If X, then Y” This simple logic statement can be seen as 2 parts:

**X**is the hypothesis/premise/evidence**Y**is the conclusion

At any time, 4 situations can happen:

- X is true - If X is true, then Y is true
- Y is true - If Y is true, we know nothing about X
- X is false - If X is false, we know nothing about Y
- Y is false - If Y is false, then X is also false (contra positive)